This Australopithecus afarensis skull is modeled after actual specimens. A. afarensis lived between 3.6 and 2.9 million years ago. Skeletal australopithecines are only known from Africa and are believed to be the earliest known true hominids. No specimens have ever been found in Europe or Asia. The early huminid species had ape-sized brains; their average cranial capacity ranged from 413 to 530cc. The Australopithecus afarensis skulls had strong jaws with large teeth. Like modern gorillas, the adult males were much larger than the females. This Australopithecus afarensis skull replica is a great comparative anatomy teaching tool.